Runny nose simply means fluid (mucus) discharged from the nose. It is also referred to as nasal discharge or rhinorrhoea in medical terms.
How runny nose happens
Any sort of irritation to the inner lining of your nose (mucosal lining) stimulates production of a fluid called mucus. The nose secrets this fluid to trap harmful substances like bacteria, viruses, pollen or pet dander and prevent their inhalation.
Once something harmful is inhaled, the nose releases the mucus and traps the contaminants before it reaches lungs.
When it is in thin form it comes out of your nose as a discharge. It may drip also into your throat known as post nasal drip. From throat it moves down to the nasal cavity into the stomach. Sometimes you may pull the secretion from your throat and spit it out from your mouth.
However, when it becomes thick and dried it may block your nose causing problems in inhalation.
Nasal discharge itself can be a symptom in case of this condition. Mucus discharge from the nose which leads to a runny nose is the most prominent and visual symptom.
Nasal discharge being the most evident symptom, sometimes even before one has a runny nose, they can experience other symptoms.
• Itching sensation inside the nose
• Sneezing sensation
• Feeling a drip or liquid flowing down the throat
• Congestion or block in the nose
• Movement of mucus in the nasal cavity when breathing in or out heavily
People may also face other accompanied symptoms if runny nose is part of another medical condition.
When one is experiencing common cold, symptoms might include:
• Stuffy nose or Congestion
• Runny nose
• Watery eyes
• Sore throat
• Mucus dripping in the throat (post-natal drip)
• Body ache
If one is experiencing sinusitis, they may have runny nose along with other symptoms of common cold like congestion, headache and sore throat.
Conditions like allergy might trigger severe sneezing and itchy eyes along with runny nose and coughing.
Runny nose can occur due to a lot of reasons, most of which aren’t really something to be scared about. Simple home remedies and rest usually helps in getting rid of runny nose.However, sometimes it may be associated with a serious condition needing urgent medical help.
Consult a doctor in presence of:
• Stuffed nose with swelling of the forehead, cheeks, side of the nose or eyes
• Blurred vision with stuffy nose
• Foul smelling nasal discharge
• Discoloured mucus other than white or yellow
• Cough lasting more than 10 days with grey or yellow-green mucus and no improvement
• Nasal discharge after an impact or injury to the head
• Runny nose lasting for more than 3 weeks
• Fever associated with runny nose
• Throat pain
• White or yellow spots on the tonsils or throat
• Bleeding with nasal discharge
The above mentioned symptoms can occur in both children and adults alike. Stay vigilant in case of kids or young children as situation can worsen quickly if left unattended.
Some other symptoms that might need immediate medical attention in case of kids include:
• Fever in a child below 2 months of age
• Difficulty in breathing
• Foul smelling discharge
• Foreign object stuck in the nose
Nasal discharge or runny nose is a protective measure of the body and can occur as a reaction to many things. Some of the conditions that cause a runny nose are mentioned below
|Allergies||A common occurrence during change in weather, allergic response may trigger mucus discharge.||Foreign particles like pollen, dust or pet dander|
|Common Cold||Also referred to as upper respiratory tract infection, inflammation in the mucus membrane can result in excess mucus production and congestion or a stuffy nose.|
|Common cold can occur due to a viral infection, the most common virus for common cold is rhinovirus.|
|Sinusitis||An infection in the sinuses can cause inflammation and excess mucus production. Severe headache and a runny nose is a common case in sinusitis.||It can be caused due to a viral infection, which is often the most common reason. A bacterial or fungal infection can also trigger sinusitis.|
|Flu||Along with a runny nose, fever could be a prominent symptom and it is more dangerous than a common cold.|
It can be very harmful for:
• Young children
• Old people
• People suffering from immunity issues
|Flu occurs due to a viral infection that affects the lungs, nose and throat.|
|Deviated Septum||Deviated septum (displacement of the wall dividing the nostrils) also called crooked nose wall can give rise to a runny nose and cause pressure on the sinuses.||Sinus Infection|
|Non–allergic Rhinitis||Also known as vasomotor rhinitis, it causes inflammation in the nasal membrane but is not triggered by an allergy.||The cause for its occurrence is not known but it may be triggered due to:|
• Change in temperature
• Exposure to cold air
• Underlying health problems
|Respiratory Tract Infections||It can lead to inflammation and excess mucus secretion or a runny nose. Younger children and old adults can be at a risk of a major infection and might need medical attention.||It is caused due to Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) or Human or thopneumovirus.|
|Nasal Polyps||These are sac like growth in the inflamed tissue lining of the nose and the sinuses.||May occur due to certain medical conditions like asthma, recurring infections or allergies.|
Other reasons for runny nose:
Excess dry air can dry out the nasal cavities and the mucus membranes. This can trigger an inflammatory response and cause excess secretion of mucus to make the nasal cavities moist.
It can occur in cold temperatures due to cold air or in case of excess dry air in the house due to external heating.
Although there are medicines to treat a runny nose, some other medicines can trigger a runny nose.
These medications include:
• Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen
• Medication used for high blood pressure, erectile dysfunction, seizures and other conditions
Although nasal decongestant sprays are meant to help relieve a blocked nose, overuse can sometimes cause further congestion.
Precaution: Avoid using nasal spray continuously for more than a few days.
Spicy food can cause nerve stimulation in the sinuses and lead to excess mucus production. This is a form of non-allergic rhinitis called gustatory rhinitis.
It is usually temporary and goes away once the consumption of the spicy food is restricted or stopped.
Excess smoke or exposure to smoke can also trigger an allergic response from the mucus membrane, making it produce excess mucus.
Excess hormones in the body during pregnancy can also cause a runny nose.
Hormonal changes occurring in the body during puberty, due to consumption of birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy can induce a non-allergic rhinitis.
This can cause enlargement of blood vessels in the nasal cavity and also trigger mucus production.
Foreign objects stuck inside the nose can often damage the nerves in the nasal cavity. It may cause bleeding as well as nasal discharge or mucus.
Runny nose itself is a prominent symptom, but additional symptoms might prove underlying conditions that may need to be diagnosed.
In worst case scenarios, as mentioned before, when visiting the doctor, one can expect the following things.
Some of the common remedies, that can help with runny nose and might relieve common cold symptoms, are mentioned below.
Thick mucus can cause congestion and it can also be difficult to drain due to its consistency.
Depending on the diagnosis of the condition, there might be different forms of treatment that can be administered by a doctor.
Rest: Most cases of common cold and viral diseases might go away with proper rest at home.
• Bacterial infection might require a dose of antibiotics.
• Fever and pain reducing medication may be suggested for flu.
• Antihistamines are effective against conditions arising from allergy.
Surgery: Extreme circumstances in cases of nasal polyps, deviated septum or sinus blockage might require minor surgical procedures to help reduce the symptoms.
Runny nose is not a major concern and taking proper care at home can prove to be very beneficial in getting rid of the symptoms.
Avoiding contact with people who are suffering from similar symptoms and maintaining hand hygiene can go a long way in preventing infections.
One should always look out for additional symptoms and consult a doctor in case of a child or if the signs are severe.
A single targeted dose of radiotherapy could be as effective at treating breast cancer as a full course, a long-term…
The loss of smell that can accompany coronavirus is unique and different from that experienced by someone with a bad…
What are finger foods? Any solid food that can be eaten directly with hands rather than with utensils like a…
Raising your kid as a team Parenting is a rewarding feeling for both partners. However, along the way, it often…
How generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is treated? The treatment of generalized anxiety disorder is decided on the basis of severity…
How generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is diagnosed? Before getting into the diagnosis details of GAD, learn about what is generalized…