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A blood pressure (BP) monitor is a medical device that measures the pressure applied by the blood on the blood vessels (arteries) walls, when it travels through them to be supplied to the whole body. It is also called a Sphygmomanometer. In this article, We will cover components of BP machine, Cost of BP machine, Types of Blood pressure machine and all other factors of BP monitor machine here.
In other words, your heart is an essential organ which pumps blood throughout the body to deliver oxygen and food for its’ function. As the heart pumps blood and as it travels through the arteries, it applies pressure on the walls of these blood vessels(arteries), which is called Blood Pressure. This is what is measured by all the types of Blood pressure machine (BP monitor).
There are basically two components of the blood pressure based on whether the heart is contracting or relaxing:
• Systolic BP: is the blood pressure that gets developed in the arteries during the contraction of your heart muscles. This is the highest pressure that develops during the entire period of a single heart cycle. For example, if your BP is 120/80 mmHg, then 120mmHg is your systolic blood pressure. This is what is felt or heard as a whooshing sound during BP monitoring.
• Diastolic BP: lowest pressure that develops in the arteries when the muscles of the heart relaxes. This is the phase where the whooshing sound suddenly stops to be heard during the BP monitoring. So for example, if your blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg, then 80mmHg is your diastolic blood pressure.
The measurements for both these pressures are done in terms of a millimeter of mercury (mmHg) because the pressure is measured by a rising amount of mercury in a vertical column in a manual blood pressure monitor in the medical facilities.
The blood pressure is an indicator of cardiovascular health. Having an abnormal blood pressure can lead to serious complications and health issues. And without a BP monitor machine you can’t measure your blood pressure. That’s why we have added all the types of blood pressure machine and cost of BP machine here.
When the blood pressure is high, it suggests increased stress on the heart and the blood vessels. Prolonged high blood pressure may eventually lead to hardening and narrowing of the blood vessels, which further increases the pressure and stress on the blood vessels and the heart. It may also cause weakening of the blood vessels walls, which may get dilated like a balloon and get ruptured. These things may eventually lead to complications such as stroke, heart attack, heart failure, and others.
Whereas when the blood pressure is low may lead to dizziness, fainting, burring of vision, and others. In extreme conditions, it may lead to shock, which can become life-threatening.
Blood pressure monitors can be of two basic types, based upon how they function. So, below are the types of blood pressure machine.
These types of blood pressure machine are most commonly available and used across the medical facilities around the globe.
• Cuff: It consists of a cuff to be wrapped around the arm just above the elbow.
• Pump: a rubber ball or a pump is used to inflate the cuff and increase pressure on the arm. The pump is connected to the cuff by means of a set of tubes.
• Release valve: it is attached to the rubber ball and allows to release the pumped air from the cuff.
• Mercury column or pressure gauge: it might consist of a vertical column of mercury, or a pressure gauge to measure the pressure.
• Stethoscope: is a device that helps to amplify and hear the sound of blood gushing through the arteries.
As the name suggests, these are automated and function to provide results themselves. They are very convenient to operate and need minimal interaction to get the results. Anybody can easily operate them. These types of blood pressure machine are very popular in the market.
• Cuff: they also comprise of a similar cuff as the manual monitor.
• Digital unit: It contains a battery-operated or direct power-operated unit, which measures the pressure automatically and displays it in digital units. It has a switch that starts the machine and initiates the pumping of air in the cuff. The sensor in the machine measures the pressure and displays it on the screen.
• Tube: It connects the machine with the cuff and fills the air in the cuff.
To operate it, the person has to just wear the cuff on his arm and press the button on the digital unit. The cuff has to be positioned just above the elbow with a marker present on the cuff indicating the right position.
It isn’t supposed to be operated by anybody other than a health professional. They are mostly used in medical facilities or when a doctor visits a patient at home. The process of this types of blood pressure machine involved in the operation is mentioned below.
• Positioning the person: the patient is asked to sit down comfortably and place their forearm on the table or any kind of support.
• Placing the cuff: The cuff is then placed on the patients’ arm just above the elbow on a vertical height similar to their heart and wrapped around. When placing the cuff, it is crucial that it shouldn’t be too tight or loose as it could cause discomfort or provide wrong readings.
• Placing the stethoscope: the stethoscope is placed over the site of the brachial artery present just above the elbow. This is placed for listening to the whooshing, or pounding sound heard over the artery.
• Inflating the cuff: after placing the cuff and the stethoscope, the cuff is inflated by pumping air with repeated compression of the rubber bulb. This is done until the cuff gets inflated to a level that temporarily stops the gushing sound heard through the arteries.
• Releasing the pressure: the pressure is slowly released using a rotary valve on the rubber pump. While releasing the pressure, the doctor listens for the reappearance of the whooshing sound. The point at which the sound heard again is noted and marked as the Systolic pressure. Gradually the entire pressure is released from the cuff, and a point at which the gushing sound is not heard anymore is noted and marked as Diastolic pressure.
All the pressure readings are noted against mmHg. This method is called as Auscultatory method, and the sound heard are referred to as Korotkoff sounds.
An automated blood pressure monitor is very easy to use and is designed to allow a person to monitor his BP on his own at home. This reduces the need for frequent hospital visits and allows regular monitoring of BP. The processes involve few and fairly simple steps according to the other types of blood pressure machine.
• Proper positioning of self: you should sit or lie comfortably, keeping your arm straight.
• Positioning the cuff: The cuff is then placed just above the elbow at a vertical height similar to the heart. The cuff shouldn’t be wrapped around too tightly or too loose.
• Pressing the button: Once everything is in place, you may start the process by pressing the button on the monitor. You may first feel the pressure increasing on the arm with the inflation of the cuff. The cuff would inflate to a particular point and then would start to deflate, automatically releasing out the air.
• Reading the results: immediately with deflation of the cuff, the machine displays the blood pressure and usually the pulse rate in the digital format.
In this method, the blood pressure is usually recorded by converting the vibration of the blood passing through the arteries into a digital signal. This method is called as Oscillometric method, and it does not involve any devices like a stethoscope to listen to the sound. So, above are the types of blood pressure machine and uses method. Now let’s talk about what is the cost of BP machine and what to consider when buying a blood pressure machine.
If you are thinking about the cost of BP machine then below points are for you. There are many types of blood pressure machine and each of them have different cost. The need to purchase a blood pressure monitor arises when there is a necessity to monitor blood pressure on a regular basis. This can be applicable to:
• Old or elderly people at home
• Patients who are currently consuming medicines to lower blood pressure
• Pregnant women
• People with chronic medical conditions and diseases such as heart problems, diabetes, etc.
There are various factors that can be looked into before buying a monitor best suited for one’s purpose.
• Type of cuff: whether it is a wrist or elbow cuff. Wrist cuffs are less accurate compared to the elbow cuff.
• Cuff size: a smaller cuff will lead to high pressure, and an oversized cuff will lead to lower pressure. Both of them will result in inaccurate readings.
• Adjustable pressure: an adjustable pressure meter can help prevent the discomfort of excess pressurization in the cuff.
• Display and buttons: the buttons should be easily accessible, and the display should be clear to understand the readings better.
• Hypertension indication: a sound or visual indicator for high blood pressure can help easy detection.
• Storage: memory storage to store the results or an app-based interface can further ease the process of data management.
• Power supply: most of the monitors are battery run, rarely models include a direct power supply. A need to have extended battery life and warranty is also important.
• Pulse display: An additional feature for displaying heart rate and its’ irregularity can come in handy.
• Ease of use: One of the most important features is to able to use the monitor with ease using single button operations.
• Cost: The major factor would be the cost involved in the purchase.
Most of the monitors are available in a pharmacy and online as well. There are many types of Blood pressure machine and a wide variety of prices when it comes to purchasing a monitor, but a basic automated monitor can be available from a price of Rs. 2000. It can go above Rs. 5000 depending on the facility it provides.
A manual mercury column equipped monitor is usually priced around Rs. 3000 and can go higher depending on the quality.
Normal blood pressure for all ages may vary slightly as with an increase in age, the pressure also increases. Although there is a variation, a number that is considered mostly normal 120/80 mmHg or lower. The highest pressure(systolic) should be 120/80 mmHg or lower, and the lowest pressure(diastolic) should be 80 mmHg or lower. This is a standard number considered for all ages. So, just check out all types of blood pressure machine and measure your BP.
|Blood pressure category||SYSTOLIC mm Hg (upper number)||DIASTOLIC mm Hg (lower number)|
|Normal||Less than 120||and||Less than 80|
|Elevated||120-129||and||Less than 80|
|High blood pressure (Hypertension) Stage 1||130-139||or||80-89|
|High blood pressure (Hypertension) Stage 2||140 or higher||or||90 or higher|
|Hypertensive crisis (consult your doctor immediately)||Higher than 180||and/ or||Higher than 120|
All conditions, whether low or high blood pressure, are a potential risk for anybody and, if a person has some significant underlying conditions, it could prove to be fatal.
The above-mentioned numbers are based on a standard for a healthy person, with the increase in age, usually after the age of 45, people start seeing a rise in blood pressure. This happens due to arteries and capillaries becoming stiffer with age.
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